Climate Change Publications



2013 Continued the Long-Term Warming Trend

A NASA Earth Observatory analysis “2013 Continued the Long-Term Warming Trend” shows that 2013 was the seventh warmest year since 1880 (tied with 2006 and 2009). Nine of the 10 warmest years on record all have occurred since 2000, with 2010 and 2005 ranking as the warmest.

Adaptation in Europe: Addressing risks and opportunities from climate change in the context of socio-economic developments

This report published by the European Environment Agency provides policymakers across Europe, at different levels of governance and stages of policy formulation, with information that can be used to support adaptation planning and implementation.

Adapting Atlantic Canada’s Fisheries to Climate Change

This booklet, published by the Ecology Action Centre, aims to present the best available information about how climate change will impact Atlantic Canada fisheries.

Adapting to Climate Change: An Introduction for Canadian Municipalities

Published by Natural Resources Canada in 2011, the guide provides information on the need for climate change adaptation and how to put adaptation measures in place. The guide also includes case studies that illustrate how municipalities of varying sizes from across the country are taking action.

Adapting to Climate Change: The Private Sector’s Role

“Adapting to Climate Change: The Private Sector’s Role” is the first in a series of blog posts from the World Resources Institute on the subject of Adaptation and the Private Sector which will explore ways to engage the private sector in helping vulnerable communities adapt to the impacts of climate change

Adapting to Climate Change in Atlantic Canada: What Organizations Are Doing Today to Prepare for Tomorrow

This Conference Board of Canada Executive Action Report is a summary of the Leaders Roundtable on Climate Change Adaptation (LRCCA) held in March 2009 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Registration (free) is required to access the report.

Addressing Loss and Damage in the Context of Social Vulnerability and Resilience

The United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security has released this Policy Brief to illustrate the relevance of the concepts of social vulnerability and social resilience to understand how climate change impacts translate into loss and damage for human society. The authors provide seven recommendations in regards to the linkages between loss and damage and social vulnerability as well as social resilience.

Arctic sea ice reaches lowest extent for the year and the satellite record

The World Meteorological Organization has reported preliminary findings from the US National Snow and Ice Data Center, which indicate that the Arctic sea ice minimum extent for 2012 was 3.41 million square kilometers, the lowest seasonal minimum extent since satellite records started in 1979.

Building Resilience: Integrating Climate and Disaster Risk into Development

The World Bank has released the report “Building Resilience: Integrating Climate and Disaster Risk into Development” which presents the World Bank's experience in climate and disaster resilient development. This Includes case studies on mainstreaming, risk identification, risk reduction, preparedness, financial and social protection, resilient reconstruction and costs, and aims to contribute to discussions on loss and damage.

Climate Benefits of Estuary Restoration

Restore America’s Estuaries has released the study “Coastal Blue Carbon Opportunity Assessment for Snohomish Estuary: The Climate Benefits of Estuary Restoration”. Findings include climate mitigation benefits of restoring tidal wetland habitat in the Snohomish Estuary, located within the nation’s second largest estuary: Puget Sound. These findings include that currently planned and in-construction restoration projects in the Snohomish estuary will result in at least 2.55 million tons of CO2 sequestered from the atmosphere over the next 100 years

Climate Benefits of Estuary Restoration

Restore America’s Estuaries has released the study “Coastal Blue Carbon Opportunity Assessment for Snohomish Estuary: The Climate Benefits of Estuary Restoration”. Findings include climate mitigation benefits of restoring tidal wetland habitat in the Snohomish Estuary, located within the nation’s second largest estuary: Puget Sound. These findings include that currently planned and in-construction restoration projects in the Snohomish estuary will result in at least 2.55 million tons of CO2 sequestered from the atmosphere over the next 100 years

Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts

The first report released by the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment. The report highlights the findings of more than 100 scientists and other experts who assessed climate change impacts on Hawai‘i and other Pacific Islands.

Climate Change Indicators in the United States, 2012

The United States Environmental Protection agency has release this report, which presents 26 indicators, each describing trends related to the causes and effects of climate change. It focuses primarily on the United States, but in some cases global trends are presented to provide context or a basis for comparison.

 Climate Smart Conservation

A new guide “Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice” addresses how climate change affects the nation’s wildlife and habitats as well as how to prepare for and adapt to these unprecedented changes. It provides a toolbox to help managers plan and implement natural resource conservation efforts. This peer-reviewed publication was developed by an expert workgroup convened by the US National Wildlife Federation.

Coastal Sea-Level Change Societal Challenge Needs Assessment Report

This 2011 report by the NOAA Coastal Services Center focuses on the needs of the coastal managers, planners and decision-makers who are facing existing or emerging climate issues related to coastal sea-level change.

Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development

Canadian Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development Fall 2014 report includes chapters on: Mitigating Climate Change; Environmental Monitoring of Oil Sands; Marine Navigation in the Canadian Arctic; Implementation of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012; Departmental Progress in Implementing Sustainable Development Strategies; and the Environmental Petitions Annual Report.

Cost-Efficient Climate Adaptation in the North Atlantic

A report released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Sea Grant looks at community-level coastal flood management and climate change adaptation best practices throughout the US North Atlantic region.

Economic Impacts of Climate Change for Canada

This report from the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) recommends that Canadians use economic information to make decisions on how to best prepare for, and respond to, the impacts of climate change. The report states, "Ignoring climate change costs now will cost us more later". The report includes a chapter on 'Coastal Areas' which looks at coastal flooding impacts, economic impacts, and adaptation strategies.

Ecosystem Change Resulting from Climate Change (2011)

Researchers from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology have found that climate change will alter plant communities on a global scale, disrupt the ecological balance between interdependent and often endangered plant and animal species, reduce biodiversity and adversely affect Earth's water, energy, carbon and other element cycles.

Encroaching Tides

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has released “Encroaching Tides: How Sea Level Rise and Tidal Flooding Threaten U.S. East and Gulf Coast Communities over the Next 30 Years.” Using a mid-range scenario for future sea level rise, the report finds that by 2030, more than half of the 52 communities analyzed on the East and Gulf Coasts can expect to average more than two dozen tidal floods per year. The rise in the frequency of tidal flooding represents an extremely steep increase for many of these communities.

Extreme Weather - The Arctic Connection

“Extreme Weather - The Arctic Connection” is a DFO Science article about the changes in the Arctic and the northern ocean, and their impact on the rest of the world.

Facing up to Rising Sea Levels: Retreat? Defend? Attack?

This think-piece by the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Institution of Civil Engineers, presents scenarios for coastal and estuarine cities and proposes three main approaches to dealing with extreme flooding and rising sea levels - retreating inland, creating habitable defence structures and building out into the sea.

Fisheries and Aquaculture: Multiple Risks from Climate Change

The 2009 FAO study entitled Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture is a comprehensive survey of existing scientific knowledge on the impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture. It.includes contributions from experts from around the world, including from the Worldfish Centre, Globec, NACA, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the University of East Anglia.

Forecasting a Sea of Change

The Canadian Climate Forum has released an issue paper titled “Forecasting a Sea of Change: Lessons from Atlantic Canada” on weather and climate impacts in the Atlantic coastal zone. By 2100, sea levels in Atlantic Canada are expected to be between 20 cm and one metre higher than today’s levels.

“Global Warming's Six Americas In September 2012

This is an update report that focuses on how six groups perceive the benefits and costs of reducing fossil fuel use or global warming; their support for different national climate change and energy policies; and their beliefs about who has influence over the decisions that elected officials make.

Guide to Considering Climate Change in Environmental Assessments in Nova Scotia

One of two guidebooks released in February 2011 by the Government of Nova Scotia designed to help project developers navigate climate change issues.

Guide to Considering Climate Change in Project Development in Nova Scotia

One of two guidebooks released in February 2011 by the Government of Nova Scotia designed to help project developers navigate climate change issues.

Health Effects of Climate Change in the UK 2012

This study is an update of earlier reports published by the Department of Health as well as a more detailed look at the effect of temperature changes on death rates. The report also investigates the effects of a changing climate on pollen production, outdoor and indoor air pollution, floods, ultraviolet radiation, food, water and insect-borne diseases.

Healthy Oceans New Key to Combating Climate Change (2009)

This article from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) discusses the importance of marine ecosystems in the mitigation of climate change.

Incorporating Sea Level Change Scenarios at the Local Level

This 2012 NOAA report outlines eight steps a community can take to develop site-appropriate scenarios.

IPCC 5th Assessment Report

The report outlines the current state of scientific knowledge relevant to climate change. It will comprise three Working Group reports and a Synthesis Report.

IUCN Climate Change Publications

Recent publications from IUCN concerning a wide range of climate change topics.

Municipal Climate Adaptation around the Bay of Fundy: Status and Needs

This study provides insights into how municipalities are working toward climate preparedness. More than 30 municipal and regional officials were surveyed and interviewed to learn more about adaptation measures taken to date, actions they are planning, and resources they need to move forward. The study includes low-cost adaptation measures already being used by municipalities around the Gulf of Maine.

Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Report

This September 2011 report provides a comprehensive overview of observed and predicted changes to Massachusetts' climate, along with anticipated impacts and potential adaptation strategies. The report includes a sector-by-sector look at how climate change may impact natural resources and habitat, infrastructure, human health and welfare, local economy and government, and the coast and ocean.

Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM)

Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) has launched the StormSmart Properties website with fact sheets for coastal property owners on shoreline stabilization options that effectively reduce erosion and storm damage while minimizing impacts to shoreline systems. The six techniques covered to date include: artificial dunes and dune nourishment; controlling overland runoff to reduce coastal erosion; planting vegetation to reduce erosion and storm damage; bioengineering - coir rolls on coastal banks; bioengineering - natural fiber blankets on coastal banks; and sand fencing.

Massachusetts Homeowner’s Handbook to Prepare for Coastal Hazards

This handbook provides information to homeowners on how to stay safe and minimize damages during coastal storms. It addresses hurricanes and northeasters and practical measures and cost-effective steps that can be implemented to lower individual risk and increase the resilience of coastal communities.

Massachusetts Shoreline Change Mapping and Analysis Project, 2013 Update

Developed collaboratively by the US Geological Survey and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and this report provides information on rates and trends of shoreline change from 1844 through 2009.

National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards

The United States Geological Survey has released three reports (Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, and Gulf of Mexico) as part of the “National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards” that compare hurricane-induced water levels to beach and dune elevations to determine the probabilities of coastal change. An online mapping tool allows users to focus on a specific storm category and see the predicted coastal change. Data and metadata downloads are also available.

National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Historical Shoreline Change Along the North Coast of Alaska

A United States Geological Survey Open-File Report “National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Historical Shoreline Change Along the North Coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian Border to Icy Cape” finds that the remote northern Alaska coast has some of the highest shoreline-erosion rates in the United States. Analyzing more than half a century of shoreline-change data along more than 1,600 kilometers of coast, from the U.S.-Canada border to Icy Cape, scientists found the pattern highly variable, with most of the coast retreating at an average rate of 1.4 meter/year. Extreme erosion in small areas exceeds 18.6 meter/year.

Nature Climate Change and Nature Geoscience

A joint web focus by Nature Climate Change and Nature Geoscience present original research and opinion pieces that discuss the causes of the slowdown in surface warming and examine how the science has been communicated by researchers and the media.

NOAA Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer

This tool from NOAA's Coastal Services Center helps visualize sea level rise and coastal flooding.

Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives

Released by the International Energy Agency, this report assesses how the Nordic region can achieve a carbon-neutral energy system by 2050 through changes in its energy sector, including a ten-fold increase in wind generation, an end to all use of coal and significant electrification of transport.

Northern Shrimp: first casualty of New England warming water?

The Working Waterfront article “Northern Shrimp: first casualty of New England warming water?” by Ben Martens discusses possible temperature linkages to shrimp populations.

Oceans 2015 Initiative

The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I. An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans.

Oceans 2015 Initiative

The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I. An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans.

Oceans and Climate Change

Part II. An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors.

OSPAR Commission: Impacts of Climate Change on the Northeast Atlantic Ecosystem

This 2009 OSPAR assessment report details both the direct physical and chemical impacts on the marine environment and the subsequent impacts occurring in the ecosystems and their biodiversity.

Parallel Paths: Canada-US Climate Policy Choices

This 2011 report from Canada's National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) examines the climate change policy relationship between Canada and the United States. The NRTEE's report offers new analysis, insight and advice on the implications of harmonizing climate policies in Canada with policies in the United States.

President Obama’s Climate Action Plan

The plan takes action to: cut carbon pollution in America, prepare for the impacts of climate change, and lead international efforts to address global climate change. Follow this link to a fact sheet and links to the plan and an infographic.

Reducing Coastal Risks on the East and Gulf Coasts

This report reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects.

Relative Sea-level Projections in Canada and the Adjacent Mainland United States

The Geological Survey of Canada report “Relative Sea-level Projections in Canada and the Adjacent Mainland United States” by James et al. (2014) is now available. Relative sea-level projections are provided for 59 locations in Canada and 10 in the adjacent mainland United States through the 21st century, relative to 1986-2005. The projections are based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Restore-Adapt-Mitigate: Responding to Climate Change through Coastal Habitat Restoration

This 2012 report released by Restore America's Estuaries links ecologically important coastal habitat restoration with adaptation and mitigation strategies as a way to reduce the impacts of global climate change.

Risk-based assessment of climate change impacts and risks on the biological systems and infrastructure within Fisheries and Oceans Canada's mandate Reports

An objective of the DFO the Aquatic Climate Change Adaptation Services Program is to assess the risks that climate change poses to the delivery of DFO’s mandate within four defined Large Aquatic Basins - Arctic, Pacific, Freshwater and Atlantic.

Roundtable on Biodiversity and Climate Change

This document comes from the second meeting of the Europe Overseas Roundtable on Biodiversity and Climate Change on February 14, 2012. Attended by representatives from around Europe, the meeting looked for a joint way forward to address biodiversity and climate change issues in Europe and overseas.

Sea Ice Trends in Canada

This article examines trends in the average area covered by sea ice during the summer in Canada’s north over a 43 year period (1968 to 2010). Trends of total (all) and multi-year (older than one year) sea ice are reported. Time series data were analysed for nine sea ice regions and three shipping route regions for total ice cover and five sea ice regions and two shipping route regions for multi-year ice cover.

Sea Level Rise Adaptation Primer

A report prepared for the Government of British Columbia this Primer focuses on adaptation tools for Canada’s southern coasts, namely the provinces of British Columbia, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador.

Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands: impacts and costs

The World Bank has released this study, which warns that a one-meter rise in sea levels from climate change could destroy over 60% of the developing world’s coastal wetlands currently found at one meter or less elevation. This scenario could provoke economic losses of around $630 million per year .

Snow Crab and Lobster in Hot Water

This is a DFO Science article about using modelling to study thermal habitat changes in relation to climate change for these two species of commercial importance to Eastern Canada.

Seeds of Knowledge

The United Nations Environment Programme released this booklet, which suggests that grassroots, community-involved projects around the world are already playing an essential role in the response to climate change, and that these projects can guide policies.

State of the Climate in 2011

The report, released by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and compiled by 378 scientists from 48 countries around the world, looks at the extreme weather events in 2011 and analyzes numerous global climate indicators and monitoring station data.

State of the Climate in 2012

The NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center, in cooperation with the American Meteorological Society released a report titled “State of the Climate in 2012”. The report provides an update of global climate indicators, notable weather events, and other data collected by environmental monitoring stations and instruments.

Stormy Future for U.S. Property/Casualty Insurers: The Growing Costs and Risks of Extreme Weather Events

The report, published by the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (Ceres), indicates that insurers are facing increased risks from climate change impacts and extreme weather losses.

Sustaining Champions of Climate Adaptation in Coastal Communities

A report released by NH Sea Grant “Sustaining Champions of Climate Adaptation in Coastal Communities” aimed to identify the role community climate adaptation champions play in adopting climate adaptation strategies in coastal communities and understand how professional climate adaptation assistance providers can best support these champions.

The Gulf of Maine Region Quarterly Climate Impacts and Outlook (GOM Outlook)

The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment Climate Network has launched a new quarterly product collaboratively developed by US and Canadian meteorologists “The GOM Outlook” offers a two-page snapshot of recent weather events and anomalies; discusses regional weather impacts on the region’s ecosystems and economy; and offers a forecast for the coming three months. These joint e-publications are being issued every March, June, September and December.

The Natural Fix?: The Role of Ecosystems in Climate Change Mitigation

The 2009 UN Environment Programme (UNEP) report states that increasing investments in the conservation, rehabilitation and management of the earth's forests, peatlands, soils and other key ecosystems, including oceans and coasts, could deliver significant cuts in greenhouse gas emissions and avoid even more being released to the atmosphere. The report reviews carbon management in natural and human dominated ecosystems and the impacts of future climate change on ecosystem carbon. It documents opportunities and challenges, and offers conclusions.

The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released two reports highlighting the value of mangroves, including as carbon stores. The reports also note that mangroves, which are disappearing faster than terrestrial forests, are not yet fully benefiting from carbon financing.

Tools for Coastal Climate Adaptation Planning: A Guide for Selecting Tools to Assist with Ecosystem-based Climate Planning

The guide, released by the EBM Tools Network, is designed to assist practitioners responsible for understanding and preparing for climate-related effects. The guide focuses on software and web-based applications that leverage geospatial information to help professionals account for the health and well-being of ecosystems and human communities in projects and plans

Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided

A new report released by The World Bank that examines the implications of a four degree Celsius increase in global mean temperatures by the end of the century. Predictions for a four degree warmer world include: unprecedented heat waves, severe drought, and major floods in many regions, with serious impacts on ecosystems and associated services.

2011 Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

Released by the World Meteorological Organization, the bulletin reports that greenhouse gas concentrations have reached new record highs in 2011 of 390.9 parts per million, or 140% of the pre-industrial level.

Vital Climate Graphics

Updated in 2005, this report presents a collection of graphics focussing on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of climate change.

Voluntary Step-by-Step Guide for Considering Potential Climate Change Effects on Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Projects

Released by the NOAA Office of Coastal Resource Management, Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program,the step-by-step guide provides an approach for coastal management partners to consider how climate impacts might affect conservation projects and how to incorporate climate change consideration into planning processes.

 What Climate Change Means For Canada

“Canada in a Changing Climate: Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation” is a new assessment report on climate change impacts and adaptation in Canada. The report provides an up-to-date picture of what climate change means for Canada in a range of sectors, including natural resources, food production, industry, biodiversity, health and infrastructure. It also includes an overview of Canada’s changing climate and an analysis of adaptation science. Led by Natural Resources Canada, the report development involved over 90 authors, 115 expert reviewers and synthesizes over 1500 recent publications.

When It Rains, It Pours: Global Warming and the Increase in Extreme Precipitation from 1948-2011

Released by the Frontier Group, this report presents an analysis of more than 80 million daily precipitation records from the US. It reveals that intense rainstorms and snowstorms have already become more frequent and more severe, extreme downpours are now happening 30 percent more often nationwide than in 1948.

World Resources Institute: Climate Science 2009-2010

The latest instalment in a series of policy briefs on the subject of climate change science, each describing the latest climate science development.

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